Sunday, October 26, 2008

Water Resources Engineering.pdf

The last training material from IIT Kharagpur, a course material about Water Resources engineering. This course material is addressed to a civil engineering student I suppose, but also so much applies to other disciplines, such as mechanical engineering and geological engineering.

Contents as well as download links:

  • Module 1 Principles of Water Resources Engineering
    • Lesson 1 Surface and Ground Water Resources, objectives [ Hydrologic cycle and its components ~ Distribution of earth’s water resources ~ Distribution of fresh water on earth ~ Rainfall distribution in India ~ Major river basins of India ~ Land and water resources of India; water development potential ~ Need for development of water resources ]
    • Lesson 2 Concepts for Planning Water Resources Development, objectives [ Principle of planning for water resource projects ~ Planning for prioritizing water resource projects ~ Concept of basin – wise project development ~ Demand of water within a basin ~ Structural construction for water projects ~ Concept of inter – basin water transfer project ~ Tasks for planning a water resources project ]
    • Lesson 3 National Policy For Water Resources Development, objectives [ Appreciate the policy envisaged by the nation to develop water resources within the country ~ Conventional and non-conventional methods in planning water resources projects ~ Priorities in terms of allocation of water for various purposes ~ Planning strategies and alternatives that should be considered while developing a particular project ~ Management strategies for excess and deficit water imbalances ~ Guidelines for projects to supply water for drinking and irrigation ~ Participatory approach to water management ~ Importance of monitoring and maintaining water quality of surface and ground water sources. ~ Research and development which areas of water resources engineering need active ~ Agencies responsible for implementing water resources projects in our country ~ Constitutional provision guiding water resource development in the county ~ Agencies responsible for monitoring the water wealth of the country and plan scientific development based on the National Policy on water ]
    • Lesson 4 Planning and Assessment of Data for Project Formulation, objectives [ The range of water resources project and the general planning philosophy ~ Planning arrangements for drinking water supply project and related data requirement ~ Planning arrangements for irrigation water supply project and related data requirement ~ Planning arrangements for hydropower generation project and related data requirement ~ Planning arrangements for flood control project and related data requirement ~ Investigations for data assessment for constructing water resource engineering structures ~ Water availability computations ~ Data collection for environment, socio-economic and demographic informations ~ Data collection methods for topography, geology, rainfall and stream flow. ]
  • Module 2 The Science of Surface and Ground Water
    • Lesson 1 Precipitation And Evapotranspiration, objectives [ The role of precipitation and evapotranspiration with the hydrologic cycle. ~ The factors that cause precipitation. ~ The means of measuring rainfall. ~ The way rain varies in time and space. ~ The methods to calculate average rainfall over an area. ~ What are Depth – Area – Duration curves. ~ What are the Intensity – Duration – Frequency curves. ~ The causes of anomalous rainfall record and its connective measures. ~ What are Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) and Standard Project Storm (SPS). ~ What are Actual and Potential evapotranspiration. ~ How can direct measurement of evapotranspiration be made. ~ How can evapotranspiration be estimated based on climatological data. ]
    • Lesson 2 Runoff and Infiltration, objectives [ The importance of runoff and infiltration in the hydrologic cycle. ~ What is the difference between overland flow, interflow and base flow components contributing to stream flow generation. ~ What are hydrograph and hyetographs. ~ Methods to separate infiltration from rainfall hyetographs effective rainfall. ~ Methods to separate base flow from stream hydrograph to find out the Direct Runoff Hydrograph. ]
    • Lesson 3 Rainfall Runoff Relationships, objectives [ How hydrograph varies with the catchment characteristics ~ How hydrograph varies with the rainfall characteristics ~ What is Unit Hydrograph, its assumptions and limitations ~ Application of the Unit Hydrograph to find the Direct Runoff Hydrograph ~ What is S – Curve and its applications ~ Derivation of the Unit Hydrograph for gauged catchments ~ How to estimate Unit Hydrograph for ungauged catchments ~ Conceptual and Physically based catchment rainfall – runoff models ]
    • Lesson 4 Design Flood Estimation, objectives [ How is a design flood described for a particular hydraulic structure? ~ How are design floods designated for: a) Storage Dams; b) Barrages and weirs; c) Diversion works and Coffer dams; and d) Cross drainage works, according to the Indian Standard guidelines. ~ What are the methods to calculate design floods, viz, a) The hydro-meteorological approach, and b) The statistical approach ~ The steps followed in finding out design flood by the hydro-meteorological approach, which is generally adopted for large and intermediate sized dams. ~ The steps followed in finding out design flood by the statistical approach, either by probability distributions or by the method of plotting positions. ]
    • Lesson 5 Subsurface Movement of Water, objectives [ The ways by which water moves below ground. ~ How water is stored underground in soil and fractured bedrock. ~ What is water table and its relation to saturated and unsaturated ground water. ~ Pressure measurement in unsaturated and saturated soil water. ~ The theory behind movement of water in the unsaturated zone. ~ The theory behind movement of water in the saturated zone, also called as ground water. ~ What are equipotential and flow lines. ~ What are aquifers and confining layers. ~ Qualitatively, the ground water flow movement in confined and unconfined layers. ~ The definitions of water storage, and the portion of that which can be withdra3wn from an aquifer. ]
    • Lesson 6 Principles of Ground Water Flow, objectives [ The description of steady state of ground water flow in the form of Laplace equation derived from continuity equation and Darcy’s law for ground water movement. ~ The quantitative description of unsteady state ground water flow. ~ The definition of the terms Specific Yield and Specific Storage and their relationship with Storativity of a confined aquifer. ~ The expressions for ground water flow in unconfined and confined aquifers, written in terms of Transmissivity. ~ Expression for two – dimensional flow in unconfined and confined aquifers; Boussinesq equation. ~ Expression for two – dimensional seepage flow below dams. ~ Analytical solution of steady one dimensional flow in simple cases of confined and unconfined aquifers. ]
    • Lesson 7 Well Hydraulics, objectives [ The concepts of steady and unsteady ground water flow to wells ~ Mathematical equations for water flow to wells in confined aquifers ~ Mathematical equations for water flow to wells in unconfined aquifers ~ Determination of the physical properties of confined aquifers ~ Design and installation of tube wells ]
    • Lesson 8 Flow Dynamics in Open Channels and Rivers, objectives [ The physical dynamics of water movement in open channels and rivers ~ The mathematical description of flow processes in the above cases ~ Different types of free surface flows: uniform, non uniform, etc. ~ Different channel shapes and cross sections and their representations ~ Computation steps for gradually varied water surface profiles ]
    • Lesson 9 Geomorphology of Rivers, objectives [ The components of a fluvial system ~ Mechanics of sediment erosion, transportation and deposition by rivers ~ Causes of riverbed aggradation and degradation ~ Bar formation in rivers ~ Causes of meandering, lateral migration and river width adjustment of rivers ~ Relationships between velocity, perimeter, slope, velocity, etc. of alluvial rivers ]
    • Lesson 10 Sediment Dynamics in Alluvial Rivers and Channels, objectives [ The mechanics of sediment movement in alluvial rivers ~ Different types of bed forms in alluvial rivers ~ Quantitative assessment of sediment transport ~ Resistance equations for flow ~ Bed level changes in alluvial channels due to natural and artificial causes ~ Mathematical modelling of sediment transport ]
  • Module 3 Irrigation Engineering Principles
    • Lesson 1 India’s Irrigation Needs and Strategies for Development, objectives [ How can the development in irrigation be sustainable ~ What are the basic requirements of irrigation and how can they be managed ~ What are irrigation schemes and how are they classified ~ What has the nation planned about irrigation ~ What are Command Area development and participatory Irrigation Management ~ How can water be managed for irrigation ~ What should be the rationale for pricing irrigation water ~ How has irrigation progressed through ages in India ]
    • Lesson 2 Soil Water Plant Relationships, objectives [ The soil and water system that is needed for plant growth ~ Classification of soils with regards to agriculture ~ Classification of water held within soil pores ~ Soil – water constants and their significance ~ Watering interval for crops ~ Importance of water for plant growth ]
    • Lesson 3 Estimating Irrigation Demand, objectives [ How much water is required for the proper growth of important crops ~ How to estimate the water demand of crops ~ What are the different seasons of crop growth ~ What are the usual cropping patterns ~ On what variables does the crop water requirement vary? ]
    • Lesson 4 Types of Irrigation Schemes and Methods of Field Water Application, objectives [ The classification of irrigation projects in India ~ Direct and Storage methods of irrigation ~ Structures necessary for implementing irrigation projects ~ The methods employed for application of water to irrigate fields ~ Surface and subsurface methods of irrigation ~ Drip and Sprinkler irrigation systems ]
    • Lesson 5 Traditional Water Systems and Minor Irrigation Schemes, objectives [ The indigenous systems of water utilisation in India ~ Region-specific traditional water storage systems in India ]
    • Lesson 6 Canal Systems for Major and Medium Irrigation Schemes, objectives [ The canal system of irrigation under major and minor irrigation schemes ~ Components of a canal irrigation system ~ Layout of a canal irrigation system ~ Lining methods in canal irrigation ~ Negative impact of canal irrigation ]
    • Lesson 7 Design of Irrigation Canals, objectives [ The basics of irrigation canals design ~ The procedures followed to design unlined and lined canals ~ Methods for subsurface drainage of lined canals ]
    • Lesson 8 Conveyance Structures for Canal Flows, objectives [ The need for structures of a canal irrigation system for conveying water from one point to another. ~ Structures for conveying water across, over or under natural streams ~ Transitions in canals at change of cross section ]
    • Lesson 9 Regulating Structures for Canal Flows, objectives [ The necessity of providing regulating structures in canals. ~ The basics of canal drops and falls. ~ The importance of canal regulators. ~ The need for Groyne Walls, Curved Wings and Skimming Platforms. ~ The functions of escapes in a canal. ]
    • Lesson 10 Distribution and Measurement Structures for Canal Flows, objectives [ What are flow distributing and measurement structures in a canal system ~ What is the function of outlets and what are their classifications ~ What are Modules ~ How are notches and weirs used to measure flow in a canal ~ How are flumes used to measure flow in a canal ]
  • Module 4 Hydraulic Structures for Flow Diversion and Storage
    • Lesson 1 Structures for Flow Diversion – Investigation Planning and Layout, objectives [ The hydraulic structures built to divert water from a river, like a barrage or a weir ~ The different steps to be followed for planning, layout, design and construction of barrages ~ The various aspects of investigation necessary for planning a diversion structure ~ How to choose the location and alignment of a proposed diversion structure ~ How to determine the characteristic dimensions of the different parts of a barrage ~ What are the appurtenant structures that have to be provided with a barrage ]
    • Lesson 2 Design of the Main Diversion Structure of a Barrage, objectives [ The sub-surface consideration for the design of a barrage ~ Steps for computing seepage pressure and exit gradient for barrage ~ Procedure to determine the waterway of a barrage ~ Computation step for determining barrage cistern level ~ The different protection works for barrages ]
    • Lesson 3 Design of Barrage Appurtenant Structures and Rules for Barrage Operation, objectives [ The design steps for a canal head regulator ~ The need for sediment exclusion devices ~ Operation and regulation rules for barrages ]
    • Lesson 4 Structures for Water Storage – Investigation, Planning and Layout, objectives [ The different types of storage structures, that is, dams ~ The decisive factors for choosing suitable location for a dam ~ The criteria for selecting a particular dam type ~ The important appurtenant structures for a dam ~ Typical layouts of dams ]
    • Lesson 5 Planning Of Water Storage Reservoirs, objectives [ The usual classification of the zones of a reservoir ~ The primary types of reservoirs and their functions ~ The steps for planning reservoirs ~ Effect of sedimentation in reservoirs ~ What are the geological explorations required to be carried out for reservoirs ~ How to determine the capacities of reservoirs ~ How to determine the dead, live and flood storages of reservoirs ~ How to reduce the loss of water from reservoirs ~ How to control sedimentation of reservoirs ~ The principles to be followed for reservoir operations ]
    • Lesson 6 Design and Construction of Concrete Gravity Dams, objectives [ The different components of concrete gravity dams and their layouts ~ Design steps for of concrete gravity dam sections ~ The expected loadings for gravity dams ~ Stability analysis of gravity dam sections ~ Construction processes for gravity dams ~ Foundation preparation for gravity dams ~ Temperature control for mass concrete dams ~ Instrumentations in concrete dams ]
    • Lesson 7 Design and Construction of Concrete Gravity Dams, objectives [ The different types of embankment dams ~ Causes of failure of embankment dams ~ Design procedure for earthen embankment dams ~ Seepage control measures for embankment dams and their foundations ~ Computation of seepage through embankment dams ~ Stability calculations for embankment dams ~ Construction process for embankment dams ~ Instrumentation in embankment dams ]
    • Lesson 8 Spillways and Energy Dissipators, objectives [ The functions of a spillways and energy dissipators in projects involving diversion and storage projects ~ Different types of spillways ~ How to determine the shape of an ogee-crested spillway and compute its discharge ~ The spillway profile in the presence of a breast wall ~ Criteria for selecting a particular type of spillway ~ Different types of energy dissipators ~ Design procedure for hydraulic jump and bucket-type energy dissipators ~ Protection measures against science downstream of energy dissipators ]
    • Lesson 9 Reservoir Outlet Works, objectives [ Functions of outlet works ~ Classification of outlet works ~ Determination of design discharge and elevation of outlet works ~ Choice of outlet works and their layout ~ Components of outlet works ~ Hydraulic design of outlet works ]
    • Lesson 10 Gates and Valves for Flow Control, objectives [ The different types of gates and valves used in water resources engineering ~ Difference between crest gates and deep seated gates ~ Classification of gates ~ Design criteria for important gates ~ Common hoists for gate lifting ~ Different types of valves for flow control ]
  • Module 5 Hydropower Engineering
  • Module 6 Management of Water Resources
    • Lesson 1 River Training And Riverbank Protection Works, objectives [ The need for river training ~ Guide bunds for restricting the flow path of river waterway ~ Afflux bunds, approach embankments, groynes ,spurs, etc. for river waterway control ~ The issue of riverbank failure and lateral migration of rivers ~ Different modes of bank failure ~ Techniques for bank stabilization ]
    • Lesson 2 Drought And Flood Management, objectives [ The consequences of abnormal rainfall – drought and floods ~ Drought and flood affected regions of India ~ Definition of drought ~ Tackling drought through water management ~ Flood management measures ]
    • Lesson 3 Remote Sensing And GIS For Water Resource Management, objectives [ The techniques of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) ~ Different types of remotely sensed images ~ Application of Remote Sensing in water resources engineering ~ Application of GIS in water resources engineering ]

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